Developing the Use of Learning Journeys

It has been a long first half term of the academic year for my school and I am sure I am not the only one who was ready for a break after a typically busy start to the year. Whilst I am currently enjoying recharging my batteries it is also a nice opportunity to reflect on the changes we have made in the last couple of months – something we don’t often get the chance to do when in the thick of it. At the start of the academic year we started to use learning journeys with all of our Key Stage 3 classes in line with our transition to mixed attainment classes. In addition I have been using them with Key Stage 4 classes as these are something I have been trying for the last year or so since I came across them at the first mixed attainment maths conference organised by Helen Hindle and feedback from my students has been largely positive, with most seeing value in seeing how they have made progress over time (check out http://www.growthmindsetmaths.com for more information and resources).

We chose to introduce learning journeys for a number of reasons, but the main one is because we want students to have a clear picture of their starting point and what where they could potentially progress to. Helen Hindle likes to structure learning journeys with outcomes written in different columns depending on difficulty. The inclusion of an arrow to show the direction of the journey also represents continual progress which isn’t limited to the outcomes. In the example below the students aren’t necessarily limited to the outcomes shown, but they could progress onto more difficult skills not represented in the learning journey e.g. circle theorems.

Key Stage 4 Learning Journey - Angles

The first lesson of each unit is spent looking at the learning journey and answering ‘Super 9’ questions relating to the outcomes in order to find their starting point. For Key Stage 4 classes I use GCSE questions. During this lesson my students will ask for help and I reply that I am not teaching them…yet, as I would end up teaching umpteen different skills throughout the lesson and the students would have a false idea of their starting points. At the end of the lesson I share the answers and students use what they have done to highlight any of the outcomes they are totally confident they can already achieve. At this point I stress that it is important to be honest and even if no outcomes are highlighted at this stage, that is fine, in fact those students could make the most progress.

Learning journeys give me some useful information about the students and it is important as the teacher that I read through them to inform my planning. Over the course of the subsequent lessons the students regularly reflect on their new learning and highlight outcomes as they go along. Whilst students are getting used to the process they may need some guidance but generally, as they become more effective in reflecting on their learning they develop consistency.

At the end of the unit students have the opportunity to revisit the ‘Super 9’ questions posed at the start, in the form of an assessment. At the time of writing we have completed one unit and the students have completed the assessment. We tailored a mark scheme to promote thorough working out so that we recognise the efforts of students at each stage of the question. We did not give time restrictions for completion as we want students to take their time to get questions right, without the pressure of a deadline. Students then mark their own answers and we record their score as a percentage. On reflection, I have decided that in future I will not ask students to find their score as it does not add value to the assessment. Instead, I will ask students to write a detailed reflection of their work in the form of a ‘Dear Sir’, relating to the outcomes of their learning journey (see previous blog post on this – I will be adding to this soon). The most integral part of this process will be their areas for improvement – I will train my students to reflect on their work and identify their next steps. I can then assign them a homework task using the wonderful Hegarty Maths. I feel it is important that they reflect on the outcomes they have and haven’t highlighted in their learning journey. I want this to be a working document which they can edit; I anticipate that students will make mistakes when highlighting outcomes and make errors in judgement.

Please find below some examples of learning journeys I have used this year, for both Key Stage 3 and 4 classes, including the related questions. There is also loads more information available at www.growthmindsetmaths.com

Key Stage 3 Learning Journey – Factors and Multiples

Key Stage 3 Learning Journey – Fractions

Key Stage 4 Learning Journey – Percentages

Key Stage 4 Learning Journey – Pythagoras’ Theorem and Trigonometry

GCSE Questions Pythagoras’ Theorem and Trigonometry

Key Stage 4 Learning Journey – Angles

GCSE Questions Angles

Advertisements

Engaging the Disengaged

In my first year of teaching I had 2 challenging Year 9 classes which I struggled to engage. I made countless mistakes as I looked for the best strategies. 3 years on, I have come up with some of the things I have found most effective in engaging the disengaged:

  1. Praise those who are on task – praise is a powerful tool when used effectively. By acknowledging the students who are doing what you expect of them, you are showing the disengaged students the level to aim for.
  2. Use competition – every teacher has their preferences but some of the things I have found particularly useful are:
    • Relays – a good way to facilitate group work. A selection of relays I have made can be found here
    • Game show-style competitions – my favourite is Catchphrase. I use mini whiteboards to ask questions and then randomly select numbered cards which correspond to a square to remove. Download my versions here
    • Kahoot quizzes – if you have access to tablets, this is a fantastic online multiple choice quiz. You can make your own; check out g.evans for all of my quizzes.
    • Puzzles – students like a challenge. I have found sudokus and Don Steward problems to be popular.Multiples Sudoku
    • Point-per-question challenges – I like to have 1-point, 2-point, 3-point etc questions. Solving Equations Challenge Answers Solving Equations Challenge
  3. Give deadlines – use a timer on the board if you can, and refer to it throughout a task
  4. Get them up to the board – a bit of responsibility goes a long way. Plus, they get to be centre of attention for a bit.
  5. Use manipulatives – multilink cubes, counters, playing cards, dice. There are an infinite number of manipulatives you could get your hands on
  6. Variety – it is the spice of life, so don’t be afraid to shake things up a bit. Group work, discussions, worksheets, quizzes, open-ended tasks, bingo, match up tasks, videos, treasure hunts, code-breakers. Routines are important in lessons, but that does not mean you cannot have a variety.
  7. Get to know your students – take the time to find out about each young person and find common interests. You can then use this to your advantage when they inevitably try to engage in conversation about last night’s football or the latest episode of Bake Off – “answer 3 more questions and I will talk to you about it”.
  8. Have a laugh – teaching is the best job in the world but it is also up there with the most stressful, so it is important that, particularly with the more challenging classes, you enjoy what you are doing. As teachers we often feel under pressure and so do the students, so I like to take a couple of minutes in the lesson to go off the script and have a laugh – providing that you remain professional of course!

Questioning

Over the last couple of years I have made a conscious effort to develop my questioning. As a new teacher I would regularly ask closed questions to the whole class and insist on hands up. I quickly found the obvious – the more confident or extrovert students would be the ones who had their hands up often, whilst the more shy or disengaged students would be happy allow others to take the lead. This meant that I was not assessing learning effectively, nor was I ensuring all students were making progress. Since then I have put in place a few things which have helped me to question even better in my lessons:

  1. Using open questioning – 3 years ago I started a coaching course run by coachinginschools.com and it completely changed the way that I approached questioning. Without giving away the content of the course, I highly recommend it as a gateway to developing your classroom questioning and listening skills as well as acquiring the tools needed to be an effective coach. It showed just how much more powerful open questions are as opposed to closed, in tapping into students’ understanding. Closed questions will often lead students to say they don’t know, and may lead them to become less confident. Open questions on the other hand, help to develop confidence as it opens up opportunities for students to express what they are thinking.
  2. Hands up to ask, not to answer – During whole class discussion I want to find out what students are thinking. To do this I insist that students can put up their hand to ask a question, or to offer a different opinion, but they should not put up their hand to answer questions. In fact, I rarely ask for answers – I am more interested in the process or their reasoning so I can check understanding.
  3. I choose who answers questions – I don’t want students to put up their hand to answer questions because I know that not all students will confidently engage, so I prefer to choose students myself. I have become quite good at keeping track of who I have asked so that there is not an imbalance, but there are many resources I have previously used, such as:
    • Random name generators – quite good and needs setting up beforehand
    • Lollipop sticks – useful, but only if you put them back in after each question or the student you have chosen may disengage for the rest of the lesson as they will know they won’t be asked again
    • Tick sheets – I usually use a laminated seating plan so I can tick off students after each question. Again, I make sure I don’t avoid a student if they have already answered a question
  4. My favourite question – Whenever I receive an answer from a student, whether it is in a whole class setting on during 1-to-1 support, my next step is to follow it with “how do you know?” I feel this is just as important when the student has given an incorrect answer as it pushes them to retrace their steps and more often than not, they will identify a mistake themselves. If not, it gives me an indication as to where they may have gone wrong and it can become a discussion point.
  5. Silence is golden – it is important to give a student time to answer a question, so I make it clear from the outset that I would prefer someone to take their time and even do a bit of working out if they need to, before answering a question. Equally, I acknowledge patience from the rest of the class as they await an answer from their peers.
  6. Bounce – a useful tool I have developed is to bounce questions from one person to another. If I ask for an answer, I may bounce to another student and ask “how could you add to that?” or ask them how they could make it even better.

Resource: Reflection Across Axes

A set of resources for a lesson on reflection across axes, including an outdoor activity. I put a coordinate grid over the top of a plan of my school and created a treasure hunt. There is also an indoor version to use in the event of inclement weather (I had to use this today). The PPT which goes with the lesson was inspired by an episode of Grange Hill (a blast from the past!) where they used a picture of a student to show symmetry. In this version I use celebrities, plus a dreadful picture of me.

Reflection Across Axes PPT

Reflection School Plan Stations

Reflection School Plan Stations Indoors VersionReflection School Plan Stations

Tarleton Academy School Plan Coordinates Grid Answers

Tarleton Academy School Plan Coordinates GridTarleton Academy School Plan Coordinates Grid

Moving to Mixed Attainment Classes

Since I attended the first two #mixedattainmentmaths conferences our department decided to move towards mixed attainment classes. Here are some of the plans we have made for the coming year:

  • Introducing it gradually – Initially the plan was to gradually introduce mixed attainment classes only in Year 7 so that it was more manageable. However, in a conversation with the knowledgeable Bruno Reddy at the MA conference in Sheffield he suggested the best way was for a teacher to teach a whole year group so that planning was reduced due to repeated lessons. I passed this idea on and we compromised by opening mixed attainment classes to Year 7 and Year 8, with 3 teachers teaching two Year 7 classes and 3 teaching two Year 8 classes. We are hoping this is going to help us to plan collaboratively and reduce workload as we lead ourselves into the unknown.
  • Collaborative planning – At the last MA conference Mark Horley suggested that collaborative planning was key to making mixed attainment classes a success. We hope to meet at least once a week in our PPA time to plan for the week. This will be particularly useful for our two new NQTs.
  • Learning journeys – I first came across learning journeys during a workshop led by Zeb Friedman at the first MA conference. Students will be given a copy at the beginning of a unit that they will highlight throughout to show progress. They will have the chance to see a Super 9, an initial set of questions covering all of the outcomes so they can see the types of question they are going to be learning to answer.

Key Stage 3 Learning Journey – Factors and Multiples

  • Notes to Myself – this was an idea shared at our last faculty meeting and was taken from a teaching & learning group. Students will have an A4 sheet of paper containing boxes in which they can write down key formulae, methods and examples. However the limited number of boxes means that students will be advised to only write down the most helpful information. The students will be able to use the sheet in end of unit assessments.
  • Scheme of Work – we are writing our own SoW so that we can tailor the units to suit our needs. We decided on what key skills we wanted students to learn by the end of Year 7 and narrowed the units down accordingly. For example, we will introduce fractions in Year 7 but not calculations involving fractions.
  • No calculators in Year 7 – this was a move we feel was important. We want students to be able to work without a calculator to do calculations, using other notation where necessary (e.g. surd form, fraction form, in terms of Pi)
  • Manipulatives – Helen Hindle’s workshop at the MA conference in Sheffield used lots of manipulatives including fraction boards and 3D shapes, whilst Mike Ollerton is renowned for his use of geoboards. We plan on investing in such things, although with financial constraints it will be over the course of the next few years.
  • Revision session – In order to support retention we plan on using a lesson every week to focus on revision of topics covered. As part of this we will be using a revision tool called The Big 9

Changing The Culture Part 4 – Dear Sir

One of the biggest misconceptions in maths is that students think they are either right or wrong, and good maths is all about getting the right answer. This means that students do not value working out or understanding a process – they are too focused on the end product, instead of the journey. Tackling the problem requires the students to change their mindset about what makes a mathematician, so the first thing I did was try to define what I believe makes a good maths student. ‘Good mathematics isn’t always getting it right, but is how you react when you are wrong.’ I wanted to emphasise that it is ok to be wrong; in fact, I want them to get things wrong and reflect on their work. So at the end of the lesson I introduced a ‘Dear Sir’ plenary, where students would write a reflection on what they learnt, how they felt in the lesson, what they needed to do to improve and any other information that they wanted to share with me.

Dear Sir

The next step was to act on the feedback. I would read the Dear Sirs and address any issues in the next lesson, praising students who gave informed reflections and working with those who did not. Initially this needed a lot of practice as some students found it difficult to write reflections and others did not know what they had achieved etc, so until I had engrained the process I needed to provide the students with support through templates and hints. Over time the standard of the reflections transformed and students became more honest and thorough in their writing.

 

It wasn’t all plain sailing though. A couple of years ago I took my eye off the ball, became negligent and lazy. I underestimated the power of feedback by not reading the reflections the students had taken time to write. The students picked up on it and this was evident in the standard of their Dear Sir reflections. It took a while for me to pull it back but I am happy that I now have a routine with my students. I feel that having the personal dialogue with each student gives them the opportunity to take ownership of their learning and take the time to appreciate the progress they have made.

Changing The Culture Part 3 – Instagram

When I first started teaching I took over the school’s Twitter account with the aim of posting puzzles and challenges for students. I quickly realised that not many students use Twitter, so I looked for another way to engage using social media. I set up an Instagram account, initially to share photos from a school trip to Paris, and this helped us to get a few followers!

Eifffel Tower Staff

I then began promoting our social media accounts in lessons and parents’ evenings so that I could start posing challenges and competitions, but I found it difficult to attract interest until I ran a competition with a class to design creative posters, and the quality and creativity blew me away so much that I wanted to show them off. I uploaded photos onto Instagram and the response was fantastic, students were engaging with their work outside of the lesson. I found that students loved having their work broadcast and I had them asking if their work could be posted so that others could see it. Now I also regularly take pictures during of students working hard during the lesson – some don’t like being on the pictures so I take a snap of their work instead.

I started following Matthew Burton on Twitter a few years ago – you may remember him as the English teacher from Channel 4’s Educating Yorkshire. One of the things I really liked was that he used #errantapostophewednesday where he would post pictures showing incorrect use of apostrophes, usually on shop signs, menus etc. I took inspiration from this to start #badmathsmonday after a trip to Tesco where I saw this ‘offer’:

Bad Offer 5

Now I try to post a picture a week, sometimes spotting them myself, sometimes relying on the internet, and even sometimes having them submitted by students! So if you find any yourself, make sure you use the hashtag!